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RE: Can't imagine a world without internal combustion engines

There are plenty of examples of pseudoscience on YouTube and other opinion websites; denial of this would be futile. This is why I attempted (but obviously failed) to point out one needs to choose their sources of information carefully. Peer review (What Is Peer Review) is a subjective process but it is better than no review (as is such on the above sources of pseudoscience). Plus many peer reviewed journals now require statements on funding sources and other possible conflicts of interest by the authors, which is not always evident from the other sources. Declaration of competing interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. While there have been many highly visible failures in the peer review process; on a percentage basis (failures divided by total peer reviewed publications) the peer review process provides orders of magnitude higher quality information than from sources not reviewed. Go review the Koch Brothers funded climate change study performed by UC-Berkeley professor Richard Muller for an example of the opposite of your complaint on funding sources driving their desired outcome. How do you propose to fund scientific research and discovery if those interested in the outcome are not allowed to fund the work (more government funding from higher taxes, higher tuition, don't fund research,…...)?
BCSnob 11/17/21 11:22am Around the Campfire
RE: Can't imagine a world without internal combustion engines

To avoid the bias you are referring to you should get your information from peer reviewed scientific journals where the study and results are reviewed by others not funded to perform the study. An example for this topic would be the journal Energy where this study of cradle to grave emissions of Greenhouse Gases from EVs in China were evaluated. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Electric Vehicles in China: Combining the vehicle cycle and fuel cycle Energy Volume 177, 15 June 2019, Pages 222-233 Abstract Electric Vehicles (EVs) are known as the future vehicles that have the potential to provide environmental benefits all over the world. The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of EVs have already been estimated for each phase in the life cycle. However, the dedicated estimations in China are not complete enough to reveal the systematic impacts of real manufacturing technologies, driving cycle and recycling processes. This study has analyzed the GHG emissions of the Cradle-to-Gate (CTG) phase, Well-to-Wheel (WTW) phase and Grave-to-Cradle (GTC) phase for different vehicles in different time to figure out the key drivers and reduction opportunities, which are based on the well-selling A0-A class compact sedan model currently in China. The results indicate that the life cycle GHG emissions of an EV are about 41.0?t CO2eq in 2015, 18% lower than those of an Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (ICEV). This value will decrease to only 34.1?t CO2eq in 2020 due to the reduction of GHG emission factor of electricity. Although the WTW phase is the largest contributor of GHG emissions for both vehicles, the proportions of each phase are quite different. The GHG emissions of the WTW phase of an EV are decreasing rapidly, but the CTG phase will not be improved at the same speed, which may become a barrier to fully take the environmental benefits of an EV. There are two major opportunities for reduction in the entire life cycle besides fuel economy development. One is EV recycling that can reduce the GHG emissions of the CTG phase by about a half. The other is the improvement of clean power grid that can further reduce the GHG emissions of the WTW phase. Having gone through the review process from a few peer reviewed journals I can attest to the details are carefully reviewed; experimental methods are reviewed, incomplete data can be required to be blustered with additional tests, and interpretation of results can be challenged. Publication can be put on hold or rejected based upon the peer review process.
BCSnob 11/17/21 09:14am Around the Campfire

Duh, was my thought when I read the paper. But I felt posting it here with the concepts presented along with data to support might be helpful in conveying the two fold benefits of vaccination: protection of oneself and protection of others in the community.
BCSnob 11/16/21 10:02am Around the Campfire

Higher Vaccination Rate Predicts Reduction in SARS-CoV-2 Transmission across the United States MedRxiv preprint 14 Nov 2021 this article analyzes COVID-19 incidence in the United States as a function of each state's vaccination rate. Results show that states with higher percentages of fully vaccinated individuals report fewer new cases among the remaining unvaccinated population. Being vaccinated helps protect those who cannot be vaccinated. The present analyses provide compelling evidence for the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing community transmission of SARS CoV-2 in the United States. Despite rising cases overall throughout the summer months due to the Delta surge and other factors, higher vaccination rates in a state at the beginning of each month still predicted fewer cases during that month relative to other states. Critically, COVID-19 incidence was calculated as a proportion of the unvaccinated population, not a proportion of the total population. Thus, these results go beyond the already plentiful evidence that the various COVID-19 vaccines are generally effective at protecting vaccinated individuals from symptomatic infection (1,2,8,12), but also provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of vaccines in protecting the surrounding community as well. in a hypothetical population of 100,000 unvaccinated people, each 1,000 (or 1%) of them who became fully vaccinated at the beginning of June would be associated with an average of 26.09 fewer cases per month among their unvaccinated peers. By the end of September, these same 1,000 vaccinations would be associated with 104.37 fewer infections overall. The effect of vaccination compounds over time (fewer infections lead to fewer additional infections) on reducing the infections in the entire population (especially in the unvaccinated, those who cannot be vaccinated).
BCSnob 11/16/21 06:55am Around the Campfire
RE: Are OTR truckers restricted from speeding?

Just one more example of Government beauracraps doing everything they can to control every aspect of everyones life. What law requires the use of speed limiters on trucks? Based upon my research a proposed bill to require speed limiters set at 65mph has not passed. If correct, it’s not the government setting the speed limiters, but business are.
BCSnob 11/15/21 05:00pm General RVing Issues

Here is another study evaluating "natural immunity" after mild Covid-19 infections 6 and 12 month post infection. This study had a small number of patients and controls. COVID-19 convalescents exhibit deficient humoral and T cell responses to variant of concern Spike antigens at 12 month post-infection MedRxiv preprint 11 Nov 2021 Serum and PBMC were collected from mild-COVID-19 convalescents at ~6 and 12 months after a COVID-19 positive PCR (n=43) and from healthy SARS-CoV-2-seronegative controls (n=15-40). Serum titers of RBD and Spike-specific Ig were quantified by ELISA. Virus neutralisation was assessed against homologous, pseudotyped virus and homologous and VoC live viruses. Frequencies of Spike and RBD-specific memory B cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Magnitude of memory T cell responses was quantified and phenotyped by activation-induced marker assay, while T cell functionality was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining using peptides specific to homologous Spike virus antigen and four VoC Spike antigens. The previously infected patients (during first wave from Wuhan variant) had antibodies and memory cells. The serum samples were then tested against live virus of several variants to assess if these convalescent serums would provide protection against infection. At 12 months after mild-COVID-19, >90% of convalescents remained seropositive for RBD-IgG and 88.9% had circulating RBD-specific memory B cells. Despite this, only 51.2% convalescents had serum neutralising activity against homologous live-SARS-CoV-2 virus (Wuhan strain), which decreased to 44.2% when tested against live B.1.1.7 (alpha), 4.6% against B.1.351 (beta), 11.6% against P.1 (gamma) and 16.2%, against B.1.617.2 (delta) VoC. Natural immunity in these patients did not appear to be as good as vaccination induced immunity and the immunity was variant dependent. SARS-CoV-2 immunity is retained in a significant proportion of mild COVID-19 convalescents 12 months post-infection in the absence of re-exposure to the virus. Despite this, changes in the amino acid sequence of the Spike antigen that are present in current VoC result in virus evasion of neutralising antibodies, as well as evasion of functional T cell responses. The bolded statement above would be true no matter how immunity was established: previous infection by the Wuhan variant or vaccination using the Wuhan variant amino acid sequence. Based upon vaccine and boosting studies, one caveat would be the level of neutralizing antibodies induced by prior infection and/or vaccination.
BCSnob 11/12/21 07:18am Around the Campfire

The study above found a breakthrough infection rate of 0.1% of the vaccinated population in the UK (through the timeframe of the study). The study below assessed the re-infection rate in South Africa during the waves due to Beta and Delta. The data indicated a 1.0% re-infection rate of those who had previously confirmed infections. Taking the results from these two studies together suggests that previous infections offer 10x lower immunity than vaccination. There was no difference in re-infection rates with Beta or Delta. SARS-CoV-2 reinfection trends in South Africa: analysis of routine surveillance data MedRxiv preprint 11 Nov 2021 Objective: To examine whether SARS-CoV-2 reinfection risk has changed through time in South Africa, in the context of the emergence of the Beta and Delta variants Design: Retrospective analysis of routine epidemiological surveillance data Setting: Line list data on SARS-CoV-2 with specimen receipt dates between 04 March 2020 and 30 June 2021, collected through South Africa's National Notifiable Medical Conditions Surveillance System Participants: 1,551,655 individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 who had a positive test result at least 90 days prior to 30 June 2021. Individuals having sequential positive tests at least 90 days apart were considered to have suspected reinfections. Main outcome measures: Incidence of suspected reinfections through time; comparison of reinfection rates to the expectation under a null model (approach 1); empirical estimates of the time-varying hazards of infection and reinfection throughout the epidemic (approach 2) Results: 16,029 suspected reinfections were identified. The number of reinfections observed through the end of June 2021 is consistent with the null model of no change in reinfection risk (approach 1). Although increases in the hazard of primary infection were observed following the introduction of both the Beta and Delta variants, no corresponding increase was observed in the reinfection hazard (approach 2). Contrary to expectation, the estimated hazard ratio for reinfection versus primary infection was lower during waves driven by the Beta and Delta variants than for the first wave (relative hazard ratio for wave 2 versus wave 1: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97); for wave 3 versus wave 1: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.55-0.90)). Although this finding may be partially explained by changes in testing availability, it is also consistent with a scenario in which variants have increased transmissibility but little or no evasion of immunity. Conclusion: We conclude there is no population-wide epidemiological evidence of immune escape and recommend ongoing monitoring of these trends.
BCSnob 11/11/21 11:09am Around the Campfire
RE: Gas prices

Gas prices don't have to be an issue now (along with all the other prices that contributed to the 6.2% inflation we are now experiencing); they made them an issue with their policies. Now they get to reap what they sow, my guess is it will be a massacre. It’s a global problem not solely under 1 government’s control and the rapid increase in consumer spending is adding to the problem. Read this: How the supply chain caused current inflation, and why it might be here to stay Link And this: What’s Causing the Global Supply Crunch? Link
BCSnob 11/11/21 06:38am General RVing Issues
RE: Coal-Rolling Teen Pickup Truck Driver Hits Six Cyclists

Probably should also include first time offender.
BCSnob 11/09/21 09:24am Around the Campfire
RE: Coal-Rolling Teen Pickup Truck Driver Hits Six Cyclists

How often are juveniles charged as adults when there was no death?
BCSnob 11/09/21 07:54am Around the Campfire

Here is a retrospective study from England looking at breakthrough infections. Describing the population experiencing COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough following second vaccination in England: A cohort study from OpenSAFELY MedRxiv preprint 8 Nov 2021 As of 30th June 2021, a total of 10,782,870 individuals were identified as being fully vaccinated against COVID-19, with a median follow-up time of 43 days (IQR: 23-64). From within this population, a total of 16,815 (0.1%) individuals reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. A very low rate of breakthrough infections; 0.1% of the vaccinated population. There were 955 COVID-19 hospital admissions and 145 COVID-19-related deaths; corresponding incidence rates of 0.70 (95% CI 0.65-0.74) and 0.12 (95% CI 0.1-0.14), respectively. Within this low rate there were some hospitalizations and deaths. Of the vaccinated population 0.009% had a breakthrough infection that lead to hospitalization and 0.0013% had a breakthrough infection that lead to death. When broken down by the initial priority group, higher rates of hospitalisation and death were seen in those in care homes. Comorbidities with the highest rates of breakthrough COVID-19 included renal replacement therapy, organ transplant, haematological malignancy, and immunocompromised. High risk patients were most likely to have serious breakthrough infections.
BCSnob 11/09/21 07:09am Around the Campfire
RE: Coal-Rolling Teen Pickup Truck Driver Hits Six Cyclists

Teen Driver Who Hit Cyclists While 'Rolling Coal' On Them Faces Felony Charges In Texas The Waller County district attorney said his office had filed six charges of aggravated assault with a deadly weapon against the driver, one for each biker hit by the truck, the culmination of a weeks-long investigation into the incident.
BCSnob 11/09/21 04:33am Around the Campfire

I am less concerned about the virus getting into meat since cooking the meat kills the virus. SARS-CoV-2 and Risk to Food Safety The virus being airborne from livestock or other animals is of greater concern.
BCSnob 11/07/21 08:47am Around the Campfire

There are now two reports of SARS-CoV-2 in whitetail deer suggesting this species could become a reservoir of the virus. Iowa Multiple spillovers and onward transmission of SARS-Cov-2 in free-living and captive White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) BioRxiv preprint 1Nov2021 To test the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 may be circulating in deer, we evaluated 283 retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) samples collected from 151 free-living and 132 captive deer in Iowa from April 2020 through December of 2020 for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Ninety-four of the 283 deer (33.2%; 95% CI: 28, 38.9) samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA as assessed by RT-PCR. Ohio SARS-CoV-2 infection in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) BioRxiv preprint 4Nov2021 Here, we detected SARS-CoV-2 virus using rRT-PCR in 129 out of 360 (35.8%) free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from northeast Ohio (USA) sampled between January-March 2021. Deer in 6 locations were infected with at least 3 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.2, B.1.596, B.1.582). The B.1.2 viruses, dominant in Ohio at the time, spilled over multiple times into deer populations in different locations. Deer-to-deer transmission may have occurred in three locations. The establishment of a natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 in white-tailed deer could facilitate divergent evolutionary trajectories and future spillback to humans, further complicating long-term COVID-19 control strategies.
BCSnob 11/06/21 06:39am Around the Campfire

PFIZER’S NOVEL COVID-19 ORAL ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT CANDIDATE REDUCED RISK OF HOSPITALIZATION OR DEATH BY 89% IN INTERIM ANALYSIS OF PHASE 2/3 EPIC-HR STUDY Pfizer press release Not a good substitute to vaccination (treatment must be started within three days of symptom onset) or would be acceptable for those choosing a religious exemption to the vaccine mandates
BCSnob 11/05/21 10:49am Around the Campfire

Here is an in vetro study (in living cells lines in a dish) on the antiviral properties of ivermectin, selamectin, moxidectin and milbemycin oxime (common antiparasitics) as compared to Remdesivir. Low selectivity index of ivermectin and macrocyclic lactones on SARS-CoV2 replication in vitro argues against their therapeutic use for COVID-19 BioRxiv Preprint 4Nov2021 The authors tested the viability of cells across a range of drug concentrations; the drugs killed the cells (cytotoxicity) with Remdesivir having the highest drug concentration before cell death occurred (above the drug concentration range tested). Then they infected the cells with SARS-CoV-2 and measured cell survivability across a range of drug concentrations (did the drug prevent cell death due to infection). Remdesivir protected the cells from infection induced death at ~10x lower concentrations than the other drugs. The authors calculated the selectivity index (concentration of protection against infection induced death divided by concentration of drug toxicity). Remdesivir had a selectivity index (SI) more than 10x higher than the other drugs; Remidesivir had a much larger drug safety margin than the others when tested on cells in a dish. The authors then reviewed literature on how high of a serum concentration can the other drugs (ivermectin, selamectin, moxidectin and milbemycin oxime) reach in serum when orally dosed into various animals and if adverse reactions to these drugs are observed at these high doses. Many were unable to achieve the protective concentration ranges measured here while others produced adverse reactions to the drug before reaching the protective concentration ranges. A very high percentage of an administered drug (oral, SubQ, IM, or IV) is excreted without being absorbed and transported to the location in the body where needed. This is another study adding to the data supporting the lack of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of Ivermectin (and other antiparasitics) in safe drug dose ranges.
BCSnob 11/04/21 02:48pm Around the Campfire

Here is a randomized control trial of boosting those who received 2 doses of Sinovac/CoronaVac with either CoronaVac or Pfizer. A RCT of a third dose CoronaVac or BNT162b2 vaccine in adults with two doses of CoronaVac MedRxiv Preprint 2Nov2021 At one month after the third dose of vaccine, BNT162b2 vaccines elicited significantly higher surrogate virus neutralizing test (sVNT), spike receptor binding, spike N terminal domain binding, spike S2 domain binding levels than CoronaVac. More participants from the BNT162b2 group reported injection site pain and swelling as well as fatigue and muscle pain than those who received CoronaVac as the third dose. The mean results of the sVNT against the wild type, beta, gamma and delta variants in the BNT162b2 boosted group was 96.83%, 92.29%, 92.51% and 95.33% respectively which were significantly higher than the CoronaVac boosted group (Wild type: 57.75%; Beta: 38.79 %; Gamma: 32.22%; Delta: 48.87%) Boosting with Pfizer provided better protection, as measured by a surrogate virus neutralizing test, than boosting with CoronaVac.
BCSnob 11/04/21 07:01am Around the Campfire

I’m not questioning if vaccine effectiveness is decreasing; I’m questioning the source of the decrease: decreasing antibodies titers and/or changes in circulating variants that the vaccines are less effective against. Why vaccine effectiveness is diminishing is critical for developing a long term plan against the virus. If it is just the antibody titers are waning then boosting with the vaccines developed against the wuhan variant is appropriate. If the VE is diminishing because the vaccines are less effective against the new variants then boosting with vaccines against the new variants makes more sense and boosting with the current vaccines is a loosing battle, long term.
BCSnob 10/30/21 05:27pm Around the Campfire

Here is another retrospective study on which provides better protection: natural immunity induced by a previous infection or mRNA vaccination. Several studies have been reported; there hasn’t been consistent results across these studies on which provides better protection. Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19–Like Illness with Infection-Induced or mRNA Vaccine-Induced SARS-CoV-2 Immunity — Nine States, January–September 2021 CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 29Oct2021 Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified among 324 (5.1%) of 6,328 fully vaccinated persons and among 89 of 1,020 (8.7%) unvaccinated, previously infected persons. A higher proportion of previously infected than vaccinated patients were aged 18–49 years (31% versus 9%), Black (10% versus 7%), and Hispanic (19% versus 12%). In this U.S.-based epidemiologic analysis of patients hospitalized with COVID-19–like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90–179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, including during a period of Delta variant predominance. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. If vaccine effectiveness is decreasing because of waning antibodies and/or changes in the circulating variants, why wouldn’t this also occur with natural immunity (waning antibodies and changes in the variants)?
BCSnob 10/30/21 08:11am Around the Campfire

We had several long time employees give notice only after which the company put on a full court press to keep them (including promotion and pay raise). That sent a very bad message to other long time employees.
BCSnob 10/29/21 08:07am Around the Campfire
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