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 > 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

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BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 10/14/21 04:18pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Antibody tests can be used to distinguish between immunity from vaccination and immunity from previous infection.

Differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected and vaccinated individuals in an inner-city emergency department
MedRxiv preprint October 14, 2021.

Quote:

Using 1914 samples of known exposure status, we developed an algorithm to differentiate previously infected, vaccinated, and unexposed individuals using a combination of antibody assays. We applied this testing algorithm to 4360 samples ED patients obtained in the springs of 2020 and 2021.


Previous infection induced antibodies to all parts of the virus including the nucleocapsid while vaccines only induced antibodies against the portions of the virus in the vaccine (typically just the spike including the RBD).

Quote:

Results: For the algorithm, sensitivity and specificity for identifying vaccinated individuals was 100% and 99%, respectively, and 84% and 100% for naturally infected individuals. Among the ED subjects, seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 increased from 2% to 24% between April 2020 and March 2021. Vaccination prevalence rose to 11% by mid-March 2021.


These results were for an emergency department (ED) in Baltimore.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 10/15/21 06:07am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is a study where the researchers collected 252 unique antibodies from 5 Covid-19 patients. These antibodies were screened (using live virus and pseudovirus) for neutralization of Wuhan strain of SARS-CoV-2 and about 1/5 were neutralizing and 19 were found to be highly neutralizing. Next the researchers screened these same 252 antibodies for neutralization of SAR-CoV (using live virus and pseudovirus). They found 1 of the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was neutralizing of SARS-CoV. They identified where this antibody binds to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV; a specific location (epitope) on the RBD that is common in both viruses AND is present in all the SARS-CoV-2 variants AND in bat AND pangolin coronaviruses (the sources of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 & MERS). Again using live virus, the researchers found this antibody neutralizes all of these viruses (to varying degrees).

Several very important findings here. An antibody that can be used to treat SARS-CoV-2 (all current variants). A location in the RBD that has not changed as SARS-CoV-2 has mutated. A location in the RBD that is common to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS. A location in the RBD that is common to corona viruses of bats and pangolins; the reservoir of future zoonotic corona viruses that could cause the next pandemic.

A monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants, SARS-CoV, and other sarbecoviruses
BioRxiv Preprint 14 Oct 2021

* This post was edited 10/15/21 06:14am by BCSnob *

charlestonsouthern

Summerville, SC

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Posted: 10/15/21 03:01pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Mexicowanderer -- I'm curious as to why you chose Sinovac as your first vaccine dose; have heard very little about it; could it also be used as a booster after taking other vaccines?

pianotuna

Regina, SK, Canada

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Posted: 10/15/21 05:44pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

charlestonsouthern wrote:

Mexicowanderer -- I'm curious as to why you chose Sinovac as your first vaccine dose; have heard very little about it; could it also be used as a booster after taking other vaccines?


It is what was available in Mexico.


Regards, Don
My ride is a 28 foot Class C, 256 watts solar, soon to have SiO2 batteries, 3000 watt Magnum hybrid inverter, Sola Basic Autoformer, Microair Easy Start.

MEXICOWANDERER

las peñas, michoacan, mexico

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Posted: 10/15/21 08:50pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Correct Pianotuna.
Like in the USA mixing vaccines is prohibito. I had no illusions that the serum was inferior but at the time the J&J was not available.

The Sinovac was available. And as a killed virus primer it was perfect. The side effects were the same as the latter Moderna. But keep in mind I had to strictly quarantine for 120 days until I received the booster in the USA. Another 90 days will pass before the Moderna second jab.

I'm doing this to play the part of a human Lab Rat. If I end up asymptomatic infected, great. But if I develop significant COVID19 symptoms then it's going to raise my eyebrows. I realize the chances of avoided infection with the Delta variant are next to impossible down here.

I do not recommend anyone else try this. Stick with the official FDA protocol. Without having a way (here in Mexico) to differentiate between blood immunization and infection clues, I will not hazard a guess.

charlestonsouthern

Summerville, SC

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Posted: 10/15/21 09:37pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Well, Wanderer, a heck of a lot of new information has been developed and studied since the early days of the pandemic. In fact, under pressure from Congress, the CDC is currently reviewing the data regarding mixing vaccines because four million Canadians took a mix of vaccines, just like you did. It needs to be approved either by the FDA or WHO before November 8 in order to cross the US border. I haven't read any recent objections about it. I think it's more about indecision than absolute prohibition. The Canadian Health Minister approved mixed vaccines for use on Canadians. Are you using the second Moderna dose as your booster?

MEXICOWANDERER

las peñas, michoacan, mexico

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Posted: 10/15/21 11:55pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

To keep this objective and clinical...

The Swiss and German studies on prime boost philosophy insisted on hetero killed virus prime then mRNA boost. Titer neutralizer counts were much higher using this particular recipe.

The first mRNA jab was intended to complete the series but two caveats have arisen.

The Delta variant

Full immunization is mandatory in the USA for surgery.

I had my choice of Boosters. Pfizer, Moderna, or J&J. I chose Moderna.

Medical is not simple chemistry. Reactive modulators created in the body must be specially determined and even then the apparent values are unique to that person. That is why large scale peer reviewed studies are absolutely mandatory.

I wouldn't be at all surprised if my Titer count amounted to within the bell curve. I am old and frail with a highly compromised immune system. I remain sequestered until mid November. By December my immune response "should be" at it's theoretical maximum level of neutralizers.

Time will tell. I intend to get bi-monthly Titer analysis.

charlestonsouthern

Summerville, SC

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Posted: 10/16/21 11:16am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Wanderer, you are working so hard to get this all accomplished, and you and your family should have much to be thankful for during the December holidays. God Bless you!

nickthehunter

Southgate, MI

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Posted: 10/16/21 01:21pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

MEXICOWANDERER wrote:

The following I can claim with absolute certainty

When hydroxychloroquine was declared as the "miracle" cure and prophylactic for COVID it did the following...

Caused an acute shortage of the drug in generic and patented (trademarked PLAQUENIL) which left me, an immunocompromised elder of then 74 years without recourse for treatment of LUPUS, Look up the malady on GOOGLE and see the consequences of untreated LUPUS.

I had to resort to steroids and methotrexate. Look those up. Either or both will greatly decrease the body's defense mechanisms against all virus, and all bacteria. Starting with an already compromised immune system, I was left defenseless for many months.

I am anything but dull witted. I knew then, and I know now, that when HCQ was finally deemed almost worthless, NINETY EIGHT PERCENT OF THOSE Rx WERE FLUSHED DOWN THE TOILET.

Down here in Mexico, I have seen far too many "Thirty Something's" become ill, and be tested positive for COVID. The worst exhibited a blood O2 saturation of 82.

When I travel to the states for medical and do my shopping, I do a mental calculation as I enter a store. If there are too many unmasked customers, I do a U-turn. I have to do this because I get no free-shots with the virus. If I get it I die.

So, no matter what your disposition may be regarding the virus please keep in mind there are severely immune compromised individuals out there who cannot live in a glass bubble. We must hope others do not kill us.


My famous last words - I’m not dull witted but I go out shopping and risk exposing myself to something that will kill me.

* This post was edited 10/16/21 02:34pm by an administrator/moderator *

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 10/19/21 06:25am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is another study estimating the change in vaccine effectiveness over time.

Time-varying effectiveness of the mRNA-1273, BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths: an analysis based on observational data from Puerto Rico
MedRxiv Preprint 18 Oct 2021

Quote:

We estimated time-varying vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infections by fitting a statistical model that adjusts for time-varying incidence rates, age, gender, and day of the week.


Quote:

At the peak of their protection, mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, and Ad26.COV2.S had an effectiveness of 87% (85% - 89%), 85% (82% - 87%), and 65% (58% - 70%), with Ad26.COV2.S reaching this peak 32 days after the being considered fully vaccinated. After four months, effectiveness waned to about 73%, 58%, and 32% for mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, and Ad26.COV2.S, respectively. All vaccines had a lower effectiveness for those over 85 years, with the decrease in effectiveness particularly low for the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. We found no clear evidence that effectiveness was different after the Delta variant became dominant.

I have one issue with the study method. The authors assessed vaccine effectiveness before and after delta by looking at two different time ranges and then claimed that all of the decrease in effectiveness was due to time from vaccination.
Quote:

To evaluate whether the Delta variant affected vaccine effectiveness, we considered two periods: before and after June 15, 2021. The mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccines remained steady at over 75% effective after the Delta variant gained dominance and a decrease in vaccine effectiveness was not detected due to the Delta variant (Supplementary Figure S2).

I read this statement as, vaccine effectiveness decreased up until the time when delta was dominant. I feel the math to assess vaccine effectiveness with time and variant prevalence is more complicated than a simple cutoff date. The data needs to be broken down into which variant caused the infection (or at least which variant was dominant at the time of infection) and what was the time from full vaccination; both of these may impact vaccine effectiveness.

The authors did estimate the impact on the population had no one been vaccinated.
Quote:

Using the rates observed for the unvaccinated we would have observed 6,109 and 2,071 hospitalizations and deaths among the vaccinated population but we instead observed 728 and 164, respectively.


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