Good Sam Club Open Roads Forum: Around the Campfire: 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS
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 > 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

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BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Joined: 02/23/2002

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Posted: 11/04/21 02:48pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is an in vetro study (in living cells lines in a dish) on the antiviral properties of ivermectin, selamectin, moxidectin and milbemycin oxime (common antiparasitics) as compared to Remdesivir.

Low selectivity index of ivermectin and macrocyclic lactones on SARS-CoV2 replication in vitro argues against their therapeutic use for COVID-19
BioRxiv Preprint 4Nov2021

The authors tested the viability of cells across a range of drug concentrations; the drugs killed the cells (cytotoxicity) with Remdesivir having the highest drug concentration before cell death occurred (above the drug concentration range tested). Then they infected the cells with SARS-CoV-2 and measured cell survivability across a range of drug concentrations (did the drug prevent cell death due to infection). Remdesivir protected the cells from infection induced death at ~10x lower concentrations than the other drugs. The authors calculated the selectivity index (concentration of protection against infection induced death divided by concentration of drug toxicity). Remdesivir had a selectivity index (SI) more than 10x higher than the other drugs; Remidesivir had a much larger drug safety margin than the others when tested on cells in a dish. The authors then reviewed literature on how high of a serum concentration can the other drugs (ivermectin, selamectin, moxidectin and milbemycin oxime) reach in serum when orally dosed into various animals and if adverse reactions to these drugs are observed at these high doses. Many were unable to achieve the protective concentration ranges measured here while others produced adverse reactions to the drug before reaching the protective concentration ranges. A very high percentage of an administered drug (oral, SubQ, IM, or IV) is excreted without being absorbed and transported to the location in the body where needed.

This is another study adding to the data supporting the lack of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity of Ivermectin (and other antiparasitics) in safe drug dose ranges.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 11/05/21 10:49am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

PFIZER’S NOVEL COVID-19 ORAL ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT CANDIDATE REDUCED RISK OF HOSPITALIZATION OR DEATH BY 89% IN INTERIM ANALYSIS OF PHASE 2/3 EPIC-HR STUDY
Pfizer press release

Not a good substitute to vaccination (treatment must be started within three days of symptom onset) or would be acceptable for those choosing a religious exemption to the vaccine mandates

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 11/06/21 06:39am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

There are now two reports of SARS-CoV-2 in whitetail deer suggesting this species could become a reservoir of the virus.

Iowa
Multiple spillovers and onward transmission of SARS-Cov-2 in free-living and captive White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
BioRxiv preprint 1Nov2021
Quote:

To test the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 may be circulating in deer, we evaluated 283 retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) samples collected from 151 free-living and 132 captive deer in Iowa from April 2020 through December of 2020 for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Ninety-four of the 283 deer (33.2%; 95% CI: 28, 38.9) samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA as assessed by RT-PCR.


Ohio
SARS-CoV-2 infection in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
BioRxiv preprint 4Nov2021
Quote:

Here, we detected SARS-CoV-2 virus using rRT-PCR in 129 out of 360 (35.8%) free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from northeast Ohio (USA) sampled between January-March 2021. Deer in 6 locations were infected with at least 3 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.2, B.1.596, B.1.582). The B.1.2 viruses, dominant in Ohio at the time, spilled over multiple times into deer populations in different locations. Deer-to-deer transmission may have occurred in three locations. The establishment of a natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 in white-tailed deer could facilitate divergent evolutionary trajectories and future spillback to humans, further complicating long-term COVID-19 control strategies.


jetboater454

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Posted: 11/07/21 05:04am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Probably way to soon to know if it will get into the deer meat. Then that opens up a whole new ball game with cows,pigs ect.


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BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 11/07/21 08:47am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

I am less concerned about the virus getting into meat since cooking the meat kills the virus.
SARS-CoV-2 and Risk to Food Safety

The virus being airborne from livestock or other animals is of greater concern.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 11/09/21 07:09am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is a retrospective study from England looking at breakthrough infections.

Describing the population experiencing COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough following second vaccination in England: A cohort study from OpenSAFELY
MedRxiv preprint 8 Nov 2021

Quote:

As of 30th June 2021, a total of 10,782,870 individuals were identified as being fully vaccinated against COVID-19, with a median follow-up time of 43 days (IQR: 23-64). From within this population, a total of 16,815 (0.1%) individuals reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test.

A very low rate of breakthrough infections; 0.1% of the vaccinated population.

Quote:

There were 955 COVID-19 hospital admissions and 145 COVID-19-related deaths; corresponding incidence rates of 0.70 (95% CI 0.65-0.74) and 0.12 (95% CI 0.1-0.14), respectively.

Within this low rate there were some hospitalizations and deaths. Of the vaccinated population 0.009% had a breakthrough infection that lead to hospitalization and 0.0013% had a breakthrough infection that lead to death.


Quote:

When broken down by the initial priority group, higher rates of hospitalisation and death were seen in those in care homes. Comorbidities with the highest rates of breakthrough COVID-19 included renal replacement therapy, organ transplant, haematological malignancy, and immunocompromised.

High risk patients were most likely to have serious breakthrough infections.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 11/11/21 11:09am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

The study above found a breakthrough infection rate of 0.1% of the vaccinated population in the UK (through the timeframe of the study).

The study below assessed the re-infection rate in South Africa during the waves due to Beta and Delta. The data indicated a 1.0% re-infection rate of those who had previously confirmed infections. Taking the results from these two studies together suggests that previous infections offer 10x lower immunity than vaccination. There was no difference in re-infection rates with Beta or Delta.

SARS-CoV-2 reinfection trends in South Africa: analysis of routine surveillance data
MedRxiv preprint 11 Nov 2021

Quote:

Objective: To examine whether SARS-CoV-2 reinfection risk has changed through time in South Africa, in the context of the emergence of the Beta and Delta variants Design: Retrospective analysis of routine epidemiological surveillance data Setting: Line list data on SARS-CoV-2 with specimen receipt dates between 04 March 2020 and 30 June 2021, collected through South Africa's National Notifiable Medical Conditions Surveillance System Participants: 1,551,655 individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 who had a positive test result at least 90 days prior to 30 June 2021. Individuals having sequential positive tests at least 90 days apart were considered to have suspected reinfections. Main outcome measures: Incidence of suspected reinfections through time; comparison of reinfection rates to the expectation under a null model (approach 1); empirical estimates of the time-varying hazards of infection and reinfection throughout the epidemic (approach 2) Results: 16,029 suspected reinfections were identified. The number of reinfections observed through the end of June 2021 is consistent with the null model of no change in reinfection risk (approach 1). Although increases in the hazard of primary infection were observed following the introduction of both the Beta and Delta variants, no corresponding increase was observed in the reinfection hazard (approach 2). Contrary to expectation, the estimated hazard ratio for reinfection versus primary infection was lower during waves driven by the Beta and Delta variants than for the first wave (relative hazard ratio for wave 2 versus wave 1: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97); for wave 3 versus wave 1: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.55-0.90)). Although this finding may be partially explained by changes in testing availability, it is also consistent with a scenario in which variants have increased transmissibility but little or no evasion of immunity. Conclusion: We conclude there is no population-wide epidemiological evidence of immune escape and recommend ongoing monitoring of these trends.


BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 11/12/21 07:18am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is another study evaluating "natural immunity" after mild Covid-19 infections 6 and 12 month post infection. This study had a small number of patients and controls.

COVID-19 convalescents exhibit deficient humoral and T cell responses to variant of concern Spike antigens at 12 month post-infection
MedRxiv preprint 11 Nov 2021

Quote:

Serum and PBMC were collected from mild-COVID-19 convalescents at ~6 and 12 months after a COVID-19 positive PCR (n=43) and from healthy SARS-CoV-2-seronegative controls (n=15-40). Serum titers of RBD and Spike-specific Ig were quantified by ELISA. Virus neutralisation was assessed against homologous, pseudotyped virus and homologous and VoC live viruses. Frequencies of Spike and RBD-specific memory B cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Magnitude of memory T cell responses was quantified and phenotyped by activation-induced marker assay, while T cell functionality was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining using peptides specific to homologous Spike virus antigen and four VoC Spike antigens.


The previously infected patients (during first wave from Wuhan variant) had antibodies and memory cells. The serum samples were then tested against live virus of several variants to assess if these convalescent serums would provide protection against infection.

Quote:

At 12 months after mild-COVID-19, >90% of convalescents remained seropositive for RBD-IgG and 88.9% had circulating RBD-specific memory B cells. Despite this, only 51.2% convalescents had serum neutralising activity against homologous live-SARS-CoV-2 virus (Wuhan strain), which decreased to 44.2% when tested against live B.1.1.7 (alpha), 4.6% against B.1.351 (beta), 11.6% against P.1 (gamma) and 16.2%, against B.1.617.2 (delta) VoC.


Natural immunity in these patients did not appear to be as good as vaccination induced immunity and the immunity was variant dependent.

Quote:

SARS-CoV-2 immunity is retained in a significant proportion of mild COVID-19 convalescents 12 months post-infection in the absence of re-exposure to the virus. Despite this, changes in the amino acid sequence of the Spike antigen that are present in current VoC result in virus evasion of neutralising antibodies, as well as evasion of functional T cell responses.


The bolded statement above would be true no matter how immunity was established: previous infection by the Wuhan variant or vaccination using the Wuhan variant amino acid sequence. Based upon vaccine and boosting studies, one caveat would be the level of neutralizing antibodies induced by prior infection and/or vaccination.

MEXICOWANDERER

las peñas, michoacan, mexico

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Joined: 06/01/2007

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Posted: 11/12/21 01:15pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YhMlZczq4Ns

Interesting presentation (not peer reviewed) of comparative results between booster types.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Joined: 02/23/2002

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Posted: 11/16/21 06:55am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Higher Vaccination Rate Predicts Reduction in SARS-CoV-2 Transmission across the United States
MedRxiv preprint 14 Nov 2021

Quote:

this article analyzes COVID-19 incidence in the United States as a function of each state's vaccination rate. Results show that states with higher percentages of fully vaccinated individuals report fewer new cases among the remaining unvaccinated population.

Being vaccinated helps protect those who cannot be vaccinated.

Quote:

The present analyses provide compelling evidence for the real-world effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing community transmission of SARS CoV-2 in the United States. Despite rising cases overall throughout the summer months due to the Delta surge and other factors, higher vaccination rates in a state at the beginning of each month still predicted fewer cases during that month relative to other states. Critically, COVID-19 incidence was calculated as a proportion of the unvaccinated population, not a proportion of the total population. Thus, these results go beyond the already plentiful evidence that the various COVID-19 vaccines are generally effective at protecting vaccinated individuals from symptomatic infection (1,2,8,12), but also provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of vaccines in protecting the surrounding community as well.


Quote:

in a hypothetical population of 100,000 unvaccinated people, each 1,000 (or 1%) of them who became fully vaccinated at the beginning of June would be associated with an average of 26.09 fewer cases per month among their unvaccinated peers. By the end of September, these same 1,000 vaccinations would be associated with 104.37 fewer infections overall.


The effect of vaccination compounds over time (fewer infections lead to fewer additional infections) on reducing the infections in the entire population (especially in the unvaccinated, those who cannot be vaccinated).

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